The average level of oxytocin was 12.6 μU /ml during the first stage of physiological work, with fluctuations and sometimes release spurts observed. The magnitude of the increase in employment ranged from 38 to 88 μU/ml. No temporal correlation was observed between relapses or fluctuations in oxytocin levels and uterine contractions. Mean oxytocin levels were 12.1 μU/ml during uterine contractions and 11.5 μU/ml during relaxation. Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) are widely used in research. The pig uterus is a long, bicornized uterus with a single body and a single cervix (Bartol, 1999). The uterine wall has an architecture similar to that of humans and other pets, with the three classic histological elements of the uterine wall, including the endometrium; Myometrium, which consists of clearly aligned smooth muscle cells and a perimeter. The endometrium contains several hundred glands in a cross-section of the uterine wall, and the myometrium differs significantly in internal circular and external longitudinal layers (Bartol, 1999; Spencer et al., 2005). The fallopian tubes in adult females have the same diameter as in humans.
However, they are much longer and the uterine body is also longer than the human uterus. The sow has an estrus cycle of 20-21 days. A total of 180 pig tuners were obtained at the local slaughterhouse. The uterus was selected based on its size and general condition, as well as the condition of the strains of the uterine artery. The average weight of pig litter was 124 g (range 85.5-165.8 g). They all came from healthy animals between the ages of 5 and 18 months. Pigs can be easily separated from the rest of the body about 2 minutes after the death of the animal by electric shock (1.5 A, 400 V, 4 s). The isolated pig wombs were provided by the local slaughterhouse, thus avoiding the costs and responsibilities of a breeding unit or performing operations on the animals. In addition, the use of the pig-uterine model avoids in vivo tests. Try PMC Labs and let us know what you think.
Find out more. A. Mueller, J. Siemer, S. Schreiner, H. Koesztner, I. Hoffmann, H. Binder, M.W.
Beckmann, R. Dittrich, Role of oerogen and progesterone in the regulation of uterine peristalsis: results from perfused non-pregnant swine uteri, Human Reproduction, Volume 21, Issue 7, Jul 2006, Pages 1863–1868, doi.org/10.1093/humrep/del056 The placenta also produces several other hormones, including human placental lactogen and corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The function of human placental lactogen is not fully understood, although it is believed to promote the growth of the mammary glands in preparation for lactation. It is also thought to help regulate the mother`s metabolism by increasing maternal blood levels of nutrients for the fetus. Corticotropin-releasing hormone is thought to regulate pregnancy duration and fetal maturation. For example, when pregnant women experience stress, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, the placenta increases the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone. There is a good reason for this: in the first days of pregnancy, the corticotropin-releasing hormone suppresses the mother`s immune system and prevents the mother`s body from attacking the fetus. Later in pregnancy, it improves blood circulation between the placenta and the fetus. During the final weeks of pregnancy, levels of corticotropin-releasing hormones increase even more – an increase that coincides with a sharp increase in cortisol levels. Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol can help fetal organs mature just before labor begins and affect the time of birth by producing a „late increase in cortisol.“ This prenatal increase in cortisol has also been linked to more attentive mothering in animals and women and is considered an adaptive response that induces an increased preference for their child`s body odor and strengthens the bond between mother and baby. As discussed in the introduction, oxytocin induces many positive effects thanks to its central effects in the brain. These include stimulating friendly social interaction, improving well-being and positive mood, and reducing anxiety, pain, and stress. Some of these effects also occur during labour and delivery as a result of the release of oxytocin into the brain.
Oxytocin is released during physiological labor and delivery from the dendrites and cell bodies of the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN. In addition, oxytocin is released by the nerves of parvocellular neurons in PVN. In this way, oxytocin reaches important regulatory areas in the brain, for example, the areas involved in the regulation of social behavior and anxiety, pain, stress and well-being. .